Background: Pulmonary valve replacement is required for patients with right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) dysfunction. Surgical and percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement are the treatment options. Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation (PPVI) provides a less-invasive therapy for patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of PPVI and the optimal time for implantation.
Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Clinical Trial, and Google Scholar databases covering the period until May 2018. The primary effectiveness endpoint was the mean RVOT gradient; the secondary endpoints were the pulmonary regurgitation fraction, left and right ventricular end-diastolic and systolic volume indexes, and left ventricular ejection fraction. The safety endpoints were the complication rates.
Results: A total of 20 studies with 1246 participants enrolled were conducted. The RVOT gradient decreased significantly [weighted mean difference (WMD) = -19.63 mmHg; 95% confidence interval (CI): -21.15, -18.11; p < 0.001]. The right ventricular end-diastolic volume index (RVEDVi) was improved (WMD = -17.59 ml/m²; 95% CI: -20.93, -14.24; p < 0.001), but patients with a preoperative RVEDVi >140 ml/m² did not reach the normal size. Pulmonary regurgitation fraction (PRF) was notably decreased (WMD = -26.27%, 95% CI: -34.29, -18.25; p < 0.001). The procedure success rate was 99% (95% CI: 98-99), with a stent fracture rate of 5% (95% CI: 4-6), the pooled infective endocarditis rate was 2% (95% CI: 1-4), and the incidence of reintervention was 5% (95% CI: 4-6).
Conclusions: In patients with RVOT dysfunction, PPVI can relieve right ventricular remodeling, improving hemodynamic and clinical outcomes.