In women with endometriosis, the lifetime risk of ovarian cancer is increased from 1.4% to about 1.9%. The risk of clear cell and endometrioid ovarian cancer is, respectively, tripled and doubled. Atypical endometriosis, observed in 1–3% of endometriomas excised in premenopausal women, is the intermediate precursor lesion linking typical endometriosis and clear cell/endometrioid tumors. Prolonged oral contraceptive use is associated with a major reduction in ovarian cancer risk among women with endometriosis. Surveillance ± progestogen treatment or surgery should be discussed in perimenopausal women with small, typical endometriomas. In most perimenopausal women with a history of endometriosis but without endometriomas, surveillance instead of risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy seems advisable. Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy might benefit patients at particularly increased risk, but the evidence is inconclusive. Risk profiling models and decision aids may assist patients in their choice. Screening of the general perimenopausal population to detect asymptomatic endometriomas is unlikely to reduce disease-specific mortality.
|Journal||Best Practice and Research: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology|
|Publication status||Published - 2018|
- Medical treatment
- Ovarian cancer
- Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Obstetrics and Gynaecology