Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells: Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives

Oriana Trubiani, Jacopo Pizzicannella, Sergio Caputi, Marco Marchisio, Emanuela Mazzon, Roberto Paganelli, Alessia Paganelli, Francesca Diomede

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Teeth represent a fascinating area of study in regenerative medicine, because of their unique and complex developmental origin. Several types of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been characterized in the oral cavity, and those derived from the periodontal ligament (PDL) first isolated by our group in 2005, can be expanded in a xeno-free medium preserving morphological features and markers associated with pluripotency. These postnatal MSCs can be easily recovered by noninvasive procedures and cultured. This could facilitate the use of adult stem cells in human clinical regeneration therapy. In this review we summarize the results of our studies describing morphofunctional features, surface markers, and multilineage differentiation capacity in vitro of PDL MSCs obtained in our laboratories. In vivo characterization of PDL stem cell (PDLSC) location and heterogeneity are still lacking. However, we describe studies exploring the potential use of PDLSC to treat both periodontal diseases and regeneration of other tissues. These MSCs may have an advantage in possessing also angiogenetic, immunoregulatory, and anti-inflammatory properties. The secretome of such cells contains several interesting molecules mimicking the effects of the producer cells. We describe some recent studies from our group on the use of conditioned medium from PDL MSCs, and purified extracellular vesicles therein contained, in animal models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and their potential application to human disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)995-1003
Number of pages9
JournalStem Cells and Development
Volume28
Issue number15
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 1 2019

Keywords

  • EAE
  • inflammation
  • MSCs
  • periodontal ligament
  • regenerative medicine
  • stem cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Developmental Biology
  • Cell Biology

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