Perioperative and clinical-angiographic late outcome of total arterial myocardial revascularization according to different composite original graft techniques

Massimo Bonacchi, Edvin Prifti, Massimo Maiani, Giacomo Frati, Gabriele Giunti, Marco Di Eusanio, Giuseppe Di Eusanio, Marzia Leacche

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Total arterial myocardial revascularization (TAMR) is advisable because of the excellent long-term patency of arterial conduits. We present early and midterm outcomes of five different surgical configurations for TAMR. Between January 1998 and May 2004, 112 patients (aged 56.5 ± 4.5 years, 20% female) with three-vessel disease underwent TAMR. The internal mammary arteries (IMAs) were harvested in a sketelonized fashion. The surgical techniques for TAMR consisted in Y or T composite grafts (n = 88, 78%) constructed between the in situ right IMA (RIMA) and the free left IMA (LIMA) graft (n = 58) or the radial artery (n = 30) (RA) in three different configurations. The other techniques consisted in T- and inverted T-graft (n = 24, 22%) constructed between the RA conduit and the free LIMA graft in two different configurations. The mean follow-up time was 40 ± 23 months. Postoperative angiographic control was performed in 76/111 (70%) patients. Overall, 472 arterial anastomoses (average 4.2 per patient) were performed. One (0.9%) patient, undergoing the inverted T-graft technique, died on postoperative day 2. Another patient (0.9%), undergoing the λ-graft technique using both IMAs and RA, suffered a new myocardial infarction probably due to RA conduit vasospasm. One week after surgery, after the transthoracic echocardiographic Doppler with adenosine provocative test, the coronary flow reserve (CFR) at the LIMA and RIMA main stems were 2 ± 0.4 and 2.4 ± 0.3, respectively. At 12-month follow-up, after adenosine provocative test, the CFRs at the LIMA and RIMA stems were significantly higher than the values at 1 week after surgery within the same group; LIMACFR (1 week) 2.4 ± 0.3 (12 months) vs 2 ± 04 (1 week), P = 0.002; RIMACFR 2.58 ± 0.4 vs 2.4 ± 0.3, P = 0.001. The CFR at the RIMA main stem was higher in all measurements within the same group than in the LIMA main stem, but not significantly. In one patient undergoing the λ-graft technique using both IMAs, the RIMA was found to have a string sign. Postoperative angiography in 50 patients showed that the patency rate for the LIMA was 100%, for the RIMA 97.3%, and for the RA 96.7%. Angiography at 3-year follow-up in 76 patients documented excellent patency rates of the LIMA (97.4%), RIMA (95%), and RA (87%). Survival at 7 years was 92.5%, event-free survival 89.3%, and freedom from angina 94%. Total arterial myocardial revascularization using different surgical configurations is safe and effective. The use of composite arterial grafts provides excellent clinical and angiographic results, with a low rate of angina recurrence and late cardiac events. These configurations allow for complete arterial revascularization.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)69-77
Number of pages9
JournalHeart and Vessels
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2006


  • Internal mammary artery
  • Myocardial surgical revascularization
  • Radial artery
  • Surgical techniques
  • Total arterial myocardial revascularization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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