Gastric cancer (GC) is the fifth-most common cancer worldwide and an important cause of cancer-related-death. The growing knowledge of its molecular pathogenesis has shown that GC is not a single entity, but a constellation of different diseases, each with its own molecular and clinical characteristics. Currently, surgery represents the only curative approach for localized GC, but only 20% of patients (pts) showed resectable disease at diagnosis and, even in case of curative resection, the prognosis remains poor due to the high rate of disease relapse. In this context, multimodal perioperative approaches were developed in western and eastern countries in order to decrease relapse rates and improve survival. However, there is little consensus about the optimal treatment for non-metastatic GC. In this review, we summarize the current status and future developments of perioperative chemotherapy in resectable GC, attempting to find clear answers to the real problems in clinical practice.