The brain is no longer considered an immune privileged organ and neuroinflammation has long been associated with Parkinson's disease. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that innate and adaptive responses take place in the CNS. The extent to which peripheral immune alterations impacts on the CNS, or vice and versa, is, however, still a matter of debate. Gaining a better knowledge of the molecular and cellular immune dysfunctions present in these two compartments and clarifying their mutual interactions is a fundamental step in understanding and preventing Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on inflammatory processes evidenced both in PD patients and in toxin-induced animal models of the disease. It discusses differences and similarities between human and animal studies in the context of neuroinflammation and immune responses and how they have guided therapeutic strategies to slow down disease progression. Future longitudinal studies are necessary and can help gain a better understanding on peripheral-central nervous system crosstalk to improve therapeutic strategies for PD.