Peripheral expression of key regulatory kinases in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease

M. T. Armentero, E. Sinforiani, C. Ghezzi, E. Bazzini, G. Levandis, G. Ambrosi, R. Zangaglia, C. Pacchetti, C. Cereda, E. Cova, E. Basso, D. Celi, E. Martignoni, G. Nappi, F. Blandini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Alteration of key regulatory kinases may cause aberrant protein phosphorylation and aggregation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we investigated expression and phosphorylation status of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3), protein kinase B (Akt) and tau protein in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 20 AD, 25 PD patients and 20 healthy controls.GSK-3 was increased in AD and PD patients. In these latter, GSK-3 levels were positively correlated with daily l-Dopa intake. Phosphorylated Akt expression was augmented in both groups; total Akt levels were increased only in AD patients and were positively correlated with disease duration and severity. Total and phosphorylated tau were increased only in AD, with phospho-tau levels being positively correlated with levels of total tau, Akt, and disease duration. No correlations between protein levels and clinical variables were found in PD patients.Investigation of peripheral changes in the expression of specific kinases may, therefore, lead to the development of innovative biomarkers of neurodegeneration, particularly for AD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2142-2151
Number of pages10
JournalNeurobiology of Aging
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2011


  • Glycogen kinase 3
  • Neurodegenerative disease
  • Peripheral blood lymphocytes
  • Protein kinase B
  • Tau

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Ageing
  • Developmental Biology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology


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