Breast-conserving treatment (BCT) is considered the standard therapy for most early-stage breast cancer cases and has given excellent results. Evidence is growing that after BCT, most recurrences appear at or near the lumpectomy cavity. Therefore, several leading institutions are investigating the possibility to limit the peroperative treatment only to the volume of breast surrounding the original tumor site. Reducing the treated volume can also lead to possible changes in overall treatment time that could be a major issue, particularly for older patients. To date, no conclusive data are available on the possible role of the partial irradiation of the breast (PBI) in early-stage breast cancer, but in this chapter we will try to review the rationale and the research of all the most popular technique for peroperative PBI currently underway.
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