Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α agonism prevents renal damage and the oxidative stress and inflammatory processes affecting the brains of stroke-prone rats

Paolo Gelosa, Cristina Banfi, Anita Gianella, Maura Brioschi, Alice Pignieri, Elena Nobili, Laura Castiglioni, Mauro Cimino, Elena Tremoli, Luigi Sironi

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Abstract

A growing body of evidence suggests that chronic kidney disease is a significant risk for cardiovascular events and stroke regardless of traditional risk factors. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists on the tissue damage affecting salt-loaded spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats (SHRSPs), an animal model that develops a complex pathology characterized by systemic inflammation, hypertension, and proteinuria and leads to end-organ injury (initially renal and subsequently cerebral). Compared with the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone, the PPARα ligands fenofibrate and clofibrate significantly increased survival (p <0.001) by delaying the occurrence of brain lesions monitored by magnetic resonance imaging (p <0.001) and delaying increased protein-uria (p <0.001). Fenofibrate completely prevented the renal disorder characterized by severe vascular lesions, tubular damage, and glomerular sclerosis, reduced the number of ED-1-positive cells and collagen accumulation, and decreased the renal expression of interleukin-1β, transforming growth factor β, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1. It also prevented the plasma and urine accumulation of acute-phase and oxidized proteins, suggesting that the protection induced by PPARα agonists was at least partially caused by their anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. The results of this study demonstrate that PPAR agonism has beneficial effects on spontaneous brain and renal damage in SHRSPs by inhibiting systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, and they support carrying out future studies aimed at evaluating the effect of PPARα agonists on proteinuria and clinical outcomes in hypertensive patients with renal disease at increased risk of stroke.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)324-331
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Volume335
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2010

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Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors
Oxidative Stress
Stroke
Kidney
Brain
Fenofibrate
rosiglitazone
Proteinuria
Inflammation
Clofibrate
Acute-Phase Proteins
Chemokine CCL2
Transforming Growth Factors
Sclerosis
Interleukin-1
Chronic Renal Insufficiency
Blood Vessels
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Collagen
Animal Models

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Molecular Medicine

Cite this

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title = "Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α agonism prevents renal damage and the oxidative stress and inflammatory processes affecting the brains of stroke-prone rats",
abstract = "A growing body of evidence suggests that chronic kidney disease is a significant risk for cardiovascular events and stroke regardless of traditional risk factors. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists on the tissue damage affecting salt-loaded spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats (SHRSPs), an animal model that develops a complex pathology characterized by systemic inflammation, hypertension, and proteinuria and leads to end-organ injury (initially renal and subsequently cerebral). Compared with the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone, the PPARα ligands fenofibrate and clofibrate significantly increased survival (p <0.001) by delaying the occurrence of brain lesions monitored by magnetic resonance imaging (p <0.001) and delaying increased protein-uria (p <0.001). Fenofibrate completely prevented the renal disorder characterized by severe vascular lesions, tubular damage, and glomerular sclerosis, reduced the number of ED-1-positive cells and collagen accumulation, and decreased the renal expression of interleukin-1β, transforming growth factor β, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1. It also prevented the plasma and urine accumulation of acute-phase and oxidized proteins, suggesting that the protection induced by PPARα agonists was at least partially caused by their anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. The results of this study demonstrate that PPAR agonism has beneficial effects on spontaneous brain and renal damage in SHRSPs by inhibiting systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, and they support carrying out future studies aimed at evaluating the effect of PPARα agonists on proteinuria and clinical outcomes in hypertensive patients with renal disease at increased risk of stroke.",
author = "Paolo Gelosa and Cristina Banfi and Anita Gianella and Maura Brioschi and Alice Pignieri and Elena Nobili and Laura Castiglioni and Mauro Cimino and Elena Tremoli and Luigi Sironi",
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AU - Gelosa, Paolo

AU - Banfi, Cristina

AU - Gianella, Anita

AU - Brioschi, Maura

AU - Pignieri, Alice

AU - Nobili, Elena

AU - Castiglioni, Laura

AU - Cimino, Mauro

AU - Tremoli, Elena

AU - Sironi, Luigi

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