Peroxynitrite-An ugly biofactor?

Paolo Ascenzi, Alessandra Di Masi, Clara Sciorati, Emilio Clementi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

37 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Cellular damage occurring under oxidative conditions has been ascribed mainly to the formation of peroxynitrite (ONOOH/ONOO-) that originates from the reaction of NO with O2 •-. The detrimental effects of peroxynitrite are exacerbated by the reaction with CO2 that leads to ONOOC(O)O-, which further decays to the strong oxidant radicals NO2 and CO3 •-. The reaction with CO2, however, may redirect peroxynitrite specificity. An excessive formation of peroxynitrite represents an important mechanism contributing to the DNA damage, the inactivation of metabolic enzymes, ionic pumps, and structural proteins, and the disruption of cell membranes. Because of its ability to oxidize biomolecules, peroxynitrite is implicated in an increasing list of diseases, including neurodegenerative and cardiovascular disorders, inflammation, pain, autoimmunity, cancer, and aging. However, peroxynitrite displays also protective activities: (i) at high concentrations, it shows anti-viral, anti-microbial, and anti-parasitic actions; and (ii) at low concentrations, it stimulates protective mechanisms in the cardiovascular, nervous, and respiratory systems. The detrimental effects of peroxynitrite and related reactive species are impaired by (pseudo-) enzymatic systems, mainly represented by heme-proteins (e.g., hemoglobin and myoglobin). Here, we report biochemical aspects of peroxynitrite actions being at the root of its biomedical effects.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)264-273
Number of pages10
JournalBioFactors
Volume36
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2010

Fingerprint

Peroxynitrous Acid
Neurodegenerative diseases
Respiratory system
Hemeproteins
Cardiovascular system
Myoglobin
Neurology
Biomolecules
Cell membranes
Cardiovascular System
Autoimmunity
Oxidants
Neurodegenerative Diseases
Respiratory System
Nervous System
DNA Damage
Membrane Proteins
Hemoglobins
Cardiovascular Diseases
Aging of materials

Keywords

  • Biomedical aspects
  • Nitro-tyrosine
  • Nitrogen monoxide
  • Peroxynitrite
  • Peroxynitrite scavenging
  • S-nitrosothiols
  • Superoxide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Molecular Medicine

Cite this

Ascenzi, P., Di Masi, A., Sciorati, C., & Clementi, E. (2010). Peroxynitrite-An ugly biofactor? BioFactors, 36(4), 264-273. https://doi.org/10.1002/biof.103

Peroxynitrite-An ugly biofactor? / Ascenzi, Paolo; Di Masi, Alessandra; Sciorati, Clara; Clementi, Emilio.

In: BioFactors, Vol. 36, No. 4, 07.2010, p. 264-273.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ascenzi, P, Di Masi, A, Sciorati, C & Clementi, E 2010, 'Peroxynitrite-An ugly biofactor?', BioFactors, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 264-273. https://doi.org/10.1002/biof.103
Ascenzi P, Di Masi A, Sciorati C, Clementi E. Peroxynitrite-An ugly biofactor? BioFactors. 2010 Jul;36(4):264-273. https://doi.org/10.1002/biof.103
Ascenzi, Paolo ; Di Masi, Alessandra ; Sciorati, Clara ; Clementi, Emilio. / Peroxynitrite-An ugly biofactor?. In: BioFactors. 2010 ; Vol. 36, No. 4. pp. 264-273.
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