Personalized therapy algorithms for type 2 diabetes: A phenotype-based approach

Antonio Ceriello, Marco Gallo, Riccardo Candido, Alberto De Micheli, Katherine Eesposito, Sandro Gentile, Gerardo Medea

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Type 2 diabetes is a progressive disease with a complex and multifactorial pathophysiology. Patients with type 2 diabetes show a variety of clinical features, including different "phenotypes" of hyperglycemia (eg, fasting/preprandial or postprandial). Thus, the best treatment choice is sometimes difficult to make, and treatment initiation or optimization is postponed. This situation may explain why, despite the existing complex therapeutic armamentarium and guidelines for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, a significant proportion of patients do not have good metabolic control and at risk of developing the late complications of diabetes. The Italian Association of Medical Diabetologists has developed an innovative personalized algorithm for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, which is available online. According to the main features shown by the patient, six algorithms are proposed, according to glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, ≥9% or ≤9%), body mass index (≤30 kg/m2 or ≥30 kg/m2), occupational risk potentially related to hypoglycemia, chronic renal failure, and frail elderly status. Through self-monitoring of blood glucose, patients are phenotyped according to the occurrence of fasting/preprandial or postprandial hyperglycemia. In each of these six algorithms, the gradual choice of treatment is related to the identified phenotype. With one exception, these algorithms contain a stepwise approach for patients with type 2 diabetes who are metformin-intolerant. The glycemic targets (HbA1c, fasting/preprandial and postprandial glycemia) are also personalized. This accessible and easy to use algorithm may help physicians to choose a personalized treatment plan for each patient and to optimize it in a timely manner, thereby lessening clinical inertia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)129-136
Number of pages8
JournalPharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine
Volume7
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 19 2014

Fingerprint

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Phenotype
Fasting
Hyperglycemia
Therapeutics
Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring
Frail Elderly
Metformin
Glycosylated Hemoglobin A
Diabetes Complications
Hypoglycemia
Chronic Kidney Failure
Body Mass Index
Guidelines
Physicians

Keywords

  • Diabetes
  • Italian algorithm
  • Italian association of Medical diabetologists
  • Personalized treatment
  • Treatment guidelines
  • Type

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology

Cite this

Personalized therapy algorithms for type 2 diabetes : A phenotype-based approach. / Ceriello, Antonio; Gallo, Marco; Candido, Riccardo; De Micheli, Alberto; Eesposito, Katherine; Gentile, Sandro; Medea, Gerardo.

In: Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine, Vol. 7, No. 1, 19.06.2014, p. 129-136.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ceriello, A, Gallo, M, Candido, R, De Micheli, A, Eesposito, K, Gentile, S & Medea, G 2014, 'Personalized therapy algorithms for type 2 diabetes: A phenotype-based approach', Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 129-136. https://doi.org/10.2147/PGPM.S50288
Ceriello, Antonio ; Gallo, Marco ; Candido, Riccardo ; De Micheli, Alberto ; Eesposito, Katherine ; Gentile, Sandro ; Medea, Gerardo. / Personalized therapy algorithms for type 2 diabetes : A phenotype-based approach. In: Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine. 2014 ; Vol. 7, No. 1. pp. 129-136.
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