Objective: To investigate, in human lymphoid tissue infected with HIV-1 ex vivo, the immunostimulatory and HIV inhibitory properties of pertussis toxin B oligomer (PTX-B) and of the genetically modified non-toxic PT-9K/129G. Methods: Human tonsils from uninfected donors were infected ex vivo with R5 or X4 HIV-1 in the presence or absence of PTX-B. Virus replication was evaluated in culture supernatants; cells emigrated from tissue blocks were immunostained for lymphocytic and activation markers. HIV DNA and cell proliferation were evaluated with real-time PCR and [3H]thymidine incorporation, respectively. Results: Both PTX-B and PT-9K/129G inhibited HIV-1 replication. These compounds activated and stimulated the proliferation of emigrated cells, most of which were CD4 T lymphocytes. Cells emigrated from infected tissues did not produce detectable virus in unstimulated or in PTX-B- or PT-9K/129G-stimulated cultures whereas robust virus production was triggered by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or interleukin-2 (IL-2). Analysis of HIV DNA content indicated that infected cells were present among emigrated cells and that their number greatly increased following IL-2 stimulation, whereas it remained constant in the presence of PTX-B or PT-9K/129G. Conclusions: PTX-B and PT-9K/129G inhibit both R5 and X4 HIV-1 replication in human lymphoid tissue ex vivo. In contrast to PHA and IL-2, they promote the proliferation of CD4 T lymphocytes emigrated from tissue, including HIV-infected cells, without triggering virus replication. Therefore, these emigrated CD4 T cells represent a novel model of a latent inducible HIV reservoir. Thus, PTX-B and the clinically approved PT-9K/129G are potential antiretroviral agents endowed with immunostimulatory capacity.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||AIDS (London, England)|
|Publication status||Published - Jul 1 2005|
- Lymphoid tissue
- T-cell proliferation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy