Pertussis toxin B-oligomer suppresses IL-6 induced HIV-1 and chemokine expression in chronically infected U1 cells via inhibition of activator protein 1

Chiara Rizzi, Massimo P. Crippa, Rienk E. Jeeninga, Ben Berkhout, Francesco Blasi, Guido Poli, Massimo Alfano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

18 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Pertussis toxin B-oligomer (PTX-B) inhibits HIV replication in T lymphocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages by interfering with multiple steps of the HIV life cycle. PTX-B prevents CCR5-dependent (R5) virus entry in a noncompetitive manner, and it also exerts suppressive effects on both R5- and CXCR4-dependent HIV expression at a less-characterized postentry level. We demonstrate in this study that PTX-B profoundly inhibits HIV expression in chronically infected promonocytic U1 cells stimulated with several cytokines and, particularly, the IL-6-mediated effect, a cytokine that triggers viral production in these cells independently of NF-κB activation. From U1 cells we have subcloned a cell line, named U1-CR1, with increased responsiveness to IL-6. In these cells, PTX-B neither down-regulated the IL-6R nor prevented IL-6 induced signaling in terms of STAT3 phosphorylation and DNA binding. In contrast, PTX-B inhibited AP-1 binding to target DNA and modified its composition with a proportional increases in FosB, Fra2, and ATF2. PTX-B inhibited IL-6-induced HIV-1 long-terminal repeat-driven transcription from A, C, E, and F viral subtypes, which contain functional AP-1 binding sites, but failed to inhibit transcription from subtypes B and D LTR devoid of these sites. In addition, PTX-B inhibited the secretion of IL-6-induced, AP-1-dependent genes, including urokinase-type plasminogen activator, CXCL8/IL-8, and CCL2/monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Thus, PTX-B suppression of IL-6 induced expression of HIV and cellular genes in chronically infected promonocytic cells is strongly correlated to inhibition of AP-1.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)999-1006
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Immunology
Volume176
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jan 15 2006

Fingerprint

Pertussis Toxin
Transcription Factor AP-1
Chemokines
HIV-1
Interleukin-6
HIV
HIV Long Terminal Repeat
Cytokines
Virus Internalization
Chemokine CCL2
DNA
Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator
Life Cycle Stages
Interleukin-8
Genes
Macrophages
Binding Sites
Phosphorylation
T-Lymphocytes
Cell Line

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology

Cite this

Pertussis toxin B-oligomer suppresses IL-6 induced HIV-1 and chemokine expression in chronically infected U1 cells via inhibition of activator protein 1. / Rizzi, Chiara; Crippa, Massimo P.; Jeeninga, Rienk E.; Berkhout, Ben; Blasi, Francesco; Poli, Guido; Alfano, Massimo.

In: Journal of Immunology, Vol. 176, No. 2, 15.01.2006, p. 999-1006.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Pertussis toxin B-oligomer (PTX-B) inhibits HIV replication in T lymphocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages by interfering with multiple steps of the HIV life cycle. PTX-B prevents CCR5-dependent (R5) virus entry in a noncompetitive manner, and it also exerts suppressive effects on both R5- and CXCR4-dependent HIV expression at a less-characterized postentry level. We demonstrate in this study that PTX-B profoundly inhibits HIV expression in chronically infected promonocytic U1 cells stimulated with several cytokines and, particularly, the IL-6-mediated effect, a cytokine that triggers viral production in these cells independently of NF-κB activation. From U1 cells we have subcloned a cell line, named U1-CR1, with increased responsiveness to IL-6. In these cells, PTX-B neither down-regulated the IL-6R nor prevented IL-6 induced signaling in terms of STAT3 phosphorylation and DNA binding. In contrast, PTX-B inhibited AP-1 binding to target DNA and modified its composition with a proportional increases in FosB, Fra2, and ATF2. PTX-B inhibited IL-6-induced HIV-1 long-terminal repeat-driven transcription from A, C, E, and F viral subtypes, which contain functional AP-1 binding sites, but failed to inhibit transcription from subtypes B and D LTR devoid of these sites. In addition, PTX-B inhibited the secretion of IL-6-induced, AP-1-dependent genes, including urokinase-type plasminogen activator, CXCL8/IL-8, and CCL2/monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Thus, PTX-B suppression of IL-6 induced expression of HIV and cellular genes in chronically infected promonocytic cells is strongly correlated to inhibition of AP-1.",
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AU - Jeeninga, Rienk E.

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AU - Poli, Guido

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