During the last decade, the application of positron emission tomography (PET) has remarkably improved the management of cancer patients. The radiotracer most widely used in clinical practice is the glucose analogue 2-[ 18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG). FDG-PET is showing increasing usefulness in the distinction between malignant and benign lesions, in disease staging, re-staging and therapy planning. Due to the lack of precise anatomic landmarks, PET may present limitations in lesion localization. In contrast, PET/computed tomography (CT), by directly combining functional and morphological aspects, provides more reliable anatomical details. The main advantage of combined PET/CT imaging is, in fact, its ability to accurately correlate abnormal metabolic changes detected on PET imaging to anatomic structures defined at CT imaging (Townsend 2001). With this chapter, the impact in breast cancer diagnosis of PET/CT will be evaluated and compared with PET alone, visually correlated with morphologic imaging obtained in a separate session.
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