Pharmacogenomics: An update on biologics and small-molecule drugs in the treatment of psoriasis

Valerio Caputo, Claudia Strafella, Terenzio Cosio, Caterina Lanna, Elena Campione, Giuseppe Novelli, Emiliano Giardina, Raffaella Cascella

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Pharmacogenomic studies allowed the reasons behind the different responses to treatments to be understood. Its clinical utility, in fact, is demonstrated by the reduction in adverse drug reaction incidence and the improvement of drug efficacy. Pharmacogenomics is an important tool that is able to improve the drug therapy of different disorders. In particular, this review will highlight the current pharmacogenomics knowledge about biologics and small-molecule treatments for psoriasis. To date, studies performed on genes involved in the metabolism of biological drugs (tumor necrosis factor inhibitors and cytokines inhibitors) and small molecules (apremilast, dimethyl fumarate, and tofacitinib) have provided conflicting results, and further investigations are necessary in order to establish a set of biomarkers to be introduced into clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1398
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2021


  • Biomarkers
  • Drug
  • Pharmacogenomics
  • Polymorphisms
  • Psoriasis
  • Psoriatic arthritis
  • Treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)


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