Pharmacokinetic considerations for therapies used to treat interstitial cystitis

Barbara Gardella, Daniele Porru, Massimo Allegri, Stefano Bogliolo, Anna Daniela Iacobone, Cristina Minella, Rossella Elena Nappi, Simone Ferrero, Arsenio Spinillo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: Interstitial cystitis (IC) or bladder pain syndrome (BPS) is defined as supra-pubic pain related to bladder filling. IC is characterized by a particular symptom complex with no identifiable causes; as with bladder hypersensitivity it is usually associated with urinary frequency and urgency with bladder pain. No current treatments have a significant impact on symptoms over time. Areas covered: This systematic review examines the pharmacokinetic aspects and adverse event of present IC therapy to highlight appropriate treatment to improve the symptoms of IC. This article reviews material obtained via Medline, PubMed, and EMBASE literature searches up to October 2013. Expert opinion: The correct approach to IC should consider a multidisciplinary team of specialists and a multimodal treatment package that include psychotherapy, behavior change, physical activation, and analgesic treatment. Unfortunately, a single therapeutic target for IC is not yet known. With regard to pathophysiology and therapy, there is more to discover. The first insult damages the bladder urothelium, hence vehicles that lead the drug to penetrate the wall of the bladder might be a novel strategic approach.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)673-684
Number of pages12
JournalExpert Opinion on Drug Metabolism and Toxicology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • Biofilms
  • Bladder pain syndrome
  • Interstitial cystitis
  • Intravesical liposomes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology
  • Medicine(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Pharmacokinetic considerations for therapies used to treat interstitial cystitis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this