Pharmacotherapy in chronic heart failure (HF) is challenging, due to the diverse neuroendocrine, inflammatory, metabolic and immunological mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis, the presence of co-morbidities and use of multiple therapies. Further, physiological parameters influencing drug pharmacokinetics (PKs) and pharmacodynamics (PDs) may be altered in patients with HF. There is growing evidence that the disease-induced physiological changes may influence the PKs and PDs of all drugs used in patients with HF. Therapeutic approaches should consider all factors that might influence the response to treatment and dosage should be tailored to individual patients. Hence, further studies are required to understand the PK and PD differences between chronic HF patients and healthy subjects. Because PK is difficult to be assessed in the individual patient with HF, PD effects should be used to tailor therapy in patients with HF.
- Cardiovascular drugs
- Chronic heart failure
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine