Pharmacokinetics and toxicity of antimuscarinic drugs for overactive bladder treatment in females

Umberto Leone Roberti Maggiore, Stefano Salvatore, Franco Alessandri, Valentino Remorgida, Massimo Origoni, Massimo Candiani, Pier Luigi Venturini, Simone Ferrero

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: Antimuscarinics (AMs) are the mainstay of pharmacological treatment of overactive bladder (OAB), a symptom complex defined by the presence of urinary urgency, usually associated with frequency and nocturia, with or without urgency urinary incontinence. The AMs used to treat OAB differ in their pharmacological profiles, which may affect their potential for causing adverse effects (AEs). Areas covered: The present article aims to review the literature about pharmacokinetics (PK) of the different AMs used in the treatment of OAB. Furthermore, the AEs related to the use of these drugs and their incidence are presented. This systematic review is based on material searched and obtained via Medline, Pubmed and EMBASE up to March 2012 using the search terms "adverse events, pharmacokinetics, tolerability" in combination with "darifenacin, fesoterodine, imidafenacin, oxybutynin, propiverine, solifenacin, tolterodine, and trospium." Expert opinion: Antimuscarinics are the first-line pharmacological treatment for OAB. Despite the development of new molecules that improve their efficacy/safety profile, there are some drugs that are pharmacokinetically more appropriate to be prescribed in specific populations such as patients with neurological disease or the elderly. Moreover, research should be encouraged in evaluating antimuscarinics in conjunction with other drugs such as estrogens or beta-agonists. The identification of prognostic criteria for pharmacological therapy would be helpful.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1387-1408
Number of pages22
JournalExpert Opinion on Drug Metabolism and Toxicology
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2012


  • Adverse events
  • Antimuscarinics
  • Overactive bladder
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Tolerability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology


Dive into the research topics of 'Pharmacokinetics and toxicity of antimuscarinic drugs for overactive bladder treatment in females'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this