Through an exhaustive search of the literature, caffeine in vivo pharmacokinetics has been reviewed on the basis of available systematic studies. History and physicochemical variables related to caffeine, and the physiological factors (dosing, age, genetic factors, disease states, pregnancy, smoking, and drug interactions) which can affect caffeine disposition in humans and animals, have been considered. Interspecies variation in caffeine pharmacokinetics has been treated as a property and consequence of body size (allometry). Linear relationships have been reported between pharmacokinetic parameters, pharmacokinetic time (a variable in terms of chronological time), and body weight across seven mammalian species, taking into account species-longevity differences too. The urinary excretion pattern of caffeine metabolites was found to be more species specific, each species presenting its own metabolic profile. This peculiar pharmacokinetic profile may render caffeine useful in the future as a natural biological probe to clarify genetic, phylogenetic, and ontogenetic events in drug metabolism, and for determining intra- and interspecies physiopathological characteristics.
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||ISI Atlas of Science: Pharmacology|
|Publication status||Published - 1988|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)