Heart failure (HF) is associated with a high morbidity and mortality in the Western World. Our knowledge of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and therapy has improved dramatically during the last 20 years. Pharmacological treatment, as it stands today, is a combination of preventive and symptomatic strategies. The mainstay life-saving drugs are angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and β-blockers. Additional benefits are obtained when angiotensin-receptor blockers or aldosterone antagonists are added. Digitalis and/or diuretics are useful for symptom reduction. In addition, combination therapy with hydralazine and isosorbide dinitrate is recommended in African Americans.
- Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
- Heart failure
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine