Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is entering a phase of intense translational research that holds promise for major advances in disease-specific pharmacological therapy. For over 50 years, however, HCM has largely remained an orphan disease, and patients are still treated with old drugs developed for other conditions. While judicious use of the available armamentarium may control the clinical manifestations of HCM in most patients, specific experience is required in challenging situations, including deciding when not to treat. The present review revisits the time-honoured therapies available for HCM, in a practical perspective reflecting real-world scenarios. Specific agents are presented with doses, titration strategies, pros and cons. Peculiar HCM dilemmas such as treatment of dynamic outflow obstruction, heart failure caused by end-stage progression and prevention of atrial fibrillation and ventricular arrhythmias are assessed. In the near future, the field of HCM drug therapy will rapidly expand, based on ongoing efforts. Approaches such as myocardial metabolic modulation, late sodium current inhibition and allosteric myosin inhibition have moved from pre-clinical to clinical research, and reflect a surge of scientific as well as economic interest by academia and industry alike. These exciting developments, and their implications for future research, are discussed.
- Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
- Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction
- Pharmacological treatment
- Sudden cardiac death
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine