We have reported that anthracyclines and nonanthracycline chemotherapeutics caused diastolic dysfunction in cancer patients without cardiovascular risk factors. Diastolic dysfunction occurred as early as 1 week after the last chemotherapy cycle and manifested as impaired myocardial relaxation at echocardiography or persistent elevations of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) or troponin. The antianginal drug ranolazine shows cardiac relaxant effects that we considered of value to treat early diastolic dysfunction induced by cancer drugs; therefore, 24 low-risk patients with post-chemotherapy diastolic dysfunction were randomized (1:1) to ranolazine or the investigator’s choice of common cardiovascular drugs, such as b-blockers and/or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or loop diuretics (best standard therapy, BST). After 5 weeks, 12 of 12 patients on ranolazine recovered from diastolic dysfunction, whereas 3 of 12 patients on BST did not improve; however, adverse events (not serious) were apparently more frequent for ranolazine than for BST (4/12 vs. 1/12). Ranolazine did not lower blood pressure, whereas BST reduced systolic pressure and caused a trend toward a reduced diastolic pressure. Most patients at randomization showed tachycardia resulting from chemotherapy-related anemia. Hemoglobin recovery contributed to normalizing heart rate in these patients; however, some patients in the ranolazine arm developed tachycardia through chronotropic effects of high BNP levels and returned to a normal heart rate through the effects of ranolazine on decreasing BNP levels. This minitrial describes the potential effects of ranolazine on relieving chemotherapy-related diastolic dysfunction; however, clinical implications of these findings need to be characterized by studies with an adequate sample size. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The antianginal drug ranolazine causes cardiac relaxant effects that might relieve diastolic dysfunction. In a clinical pharmacology study, 24 patients were randomized (1:1) to receive ranolazine or common cardiovascular drugs to treat early diastolic dysfunction induced by anthracycline-based or nonanthracycline chemotherapy. Ranolazine relieved diastolic dysfunction in these patients. The safety profile of ranolazine in cancer patients is similar to that of the general population. Compared with common cardiovascular drugs, ranolazine relieved diastolic dysfunction without lowering blood pressure. The sample size of this study was nonetheless too small to permit considerations about the potential clinical value of ranolazine for oncologic patients with early diastolic dysfunction induced by anthracyclines or nonanthracycline chemotherapeutics. This information should be obtained by studies with an adequate sample size.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics|
|Publication status||Published - Jan 1 2019|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine