BACKGROUND: Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is the fourth most frequent retinal disorder in terms of prevalence. It typically occurs in young subjects and affects men more often than women. CSC is characterized by serous retinal detachment (SRD) involving mainly the macular area. The clinical course is usually selflimited, with spontaneous resolution within 3 months. The persistence of SRD or multiple relapse may result in a chronic form of CSC distinguished by permanent retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptor damage. As the pathogenetic mechanism of CSC primarily involves RPE and choroidal vascularization, the current therapeutic approaches aim to restore the normal functions of RPE and normal choroidal vascular permeability. In this review, the authors aim to summarize the current therapeutic approach to CSC.
METHODS: A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted in PubMed by searching for relevant studies on the current therapeutic options for CSC, including simple observation, conventional laser treatment, subthreshold laser treatment (SLT), photodynamic therapy (PDT) with verteporfin, treatment with mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists and treatment with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor drugs.
RESULTS: Since most cases resolve spontaneously, the most common initial CSC treatment is observation. Current evidence suggests that PDT and SLT are valuable in improving visual acuity, reducing subretinal fluid and maintaining long-term effectiveness. No clear evidence of efficacy has been achieved for anti-VEGF. MR antagonists might be a viable choice for the treatment of chronic CSC.
CONCLUSION: The pathophysiology of CSC remains poorly understood and as a consequence, the gold standard of care for CSC is yet to be defined. To date, PDT and SLT continue to offer good clinical outcomes. Positive preliminary results seem to emerge from the studies of MR antagonists.
- Angiogenesis Inhibitors/pharmacology
- Central Serous Chorioretinopathy/drug therapy
- Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology
- Photosensitizing Agents/pharmacology
- Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors