Pharmacotherapy of intraocular pressure: Part I. Parasympathomimetic, sympathomimetic

Ciro Costagliola, Roberto Dell'Omo, Mario R. Romano, Michele Rinaldi, Lucia Zeppa, Francesco Parmeggiani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) has been recognized as the major risk factor for the development of glaucoma and a wide range of options are now available to reduce it: medical treatment, laser, filtering, or cyclodestructive surgery (alone or in combination). All these modalities act by decreasing eye pressure and, thereby, protecting the optic nerve head from a mechanic direct and/or vascular indirect insult. Topical medical therapy represents the first-choice treatment and, in most cases, it effectively controls IOP, avoiding the occurrence of further optic nerve damage. All medications lower IOP in two main ways: decreasing the production of aqueous humour or by increasing its outflow from the eye. Consequently, antiglaucoma drugs either suppress aqueous humour formation (β-adrenergic antagonists, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, and alpha-2-adrenergic agonists) or raise aqueous humour outflow throughout the conventional (e.g., pilocarpine) or uveoscleral (prostaglandin FP receptor agonists, and prostamides) route. In addition, fixed and unfixed combinations of antiglaucoma compounds have also been available for patients requiring more than one type of medication. This review, which is part one of two (please see Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy 10 (17)) briefly considers the characteristics of sympathomimetic, sympatholytics and parasympathomimetic commonly employed in the medical treatment of glaucoma, mainly the primary open-angle form, focusing the discussion on the clinical evidence supporting the use of these three classes of compound.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2663-2677
Number of pages15
JournalExpert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Volume10
Issue number16
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009

Fingerprint

Parasympathomimetics
Sympathomimetics
Intraocular Pressure
Aqueous Humor
Drug Therapy
Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists
Sympatholytics
Prostaglandin Receptors
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
Pilocarpine
Adrenergic Antagonists
Optic Disk
Expert Testimony
Therapeutics
Optic Nerve
Glaucoma
Blood Vessels
Lasers
Pressure
Pharmaceutical Preparations

Keywords

  • Fixed combination
  • Glaucoma
  • Glaucoma medical treatment
  • Parasympathomimetics
  • Primary open-angle glaucoma
  • Sympatholytics
  • Sympathomimetics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Pharmacology

Cite this

Costagliola, C., Dell'Omo, R., Romano, M. R., Rinaldi, M., Zeppa, L., & Parmeggiani, F. (2009). Pharmacotherapy of intraocular pressure: Part I. Parasympathomimetic, sympathomimetic. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, 10(16), 2663-2677. https://doi.org/10.1517/14656560903300103

Pharmacotherapy of intraocular pressure : Part I. Parasympathomimetic, sympathomimetic. / Costagliola, Ciro; Dell'Omo, Roberto; Romano, Mario R.; Rinaldi, Michele; Zeppa, Lucia; Parmeggiani, Francesco.

In: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, Vol. 10, No. 16, 2009, p. 2663-2677.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Costagliola, C, Dell'Omo, R, Romano, MR, Rinaldi, M, Zeppa, L & Parmeggiani, F 2009, 'Pharmacotherapy of intraocular pressure: Part I. Parasympathomimetic, sympathomimetic', Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, vol. 10, no. 16, pp. 2663-2677. https://doi.org/10.1517/14656560903300103
Costagliola, Ciro ; Dell'Omo, Roberto ; Romano, Mario R. ; Rinaldi, Michele ; Zeppa, Lucia ; Parmeggiani, Francesco. / Pharmacotherapy of intraocular pressure : Part I. Parasympathomimetic, sympathomimetic. In: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy. 2009 ; Vol. 10, No. 16. pp. 2663-2677.
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