Intraperitoneal (i.p.) 5-fluoro-2′-deoxyuridine (Floxuridine, FUdR, FdUrd) was evaluated in a phase I study at a starting level of 500 mg given on 1 day in 2 I 1.5% dialysate. Escalations within patients were allowed every other cycle. A total of 23 patients (age, 32-78 years) received 108 treatment courses. Local tolerance at all dose levels was excellent, with no cases of drug-related peritonitis being observed. Nausea and vomiting increased in severity in relation to dose and was universal at >3,000 mg ×3 days. One patient each developed grade 1 mucositis as well as diarrhea at a dose of 3,000 mg×3 days and leukopenia and thrombocytopenia at 5,000 mg×3 days. Peritoneal fluid (PF) and plasma (PL) FdUrd profiles were monitored by an HPLC method in 13 subjects, with 7 being studied serially at 2-4 increment doses for up to 6 h. Profiles that exhibited apparent linear pharmacokinetics gave PF drug levels 2-4 logs higher than the PL counterparts, with the latter essentially declining in parallel to the former, indicating that the disposition of FdUrd from the peritoneal compartment is rate-determining. The mean terminal half-life for PF FdUrd was found to be 115 min and mean peritoneal clearance was 25 ml/min. The vast differences in drug levels and AUC found between the PF and the PL profiles suggests a high systemic clearance of FdUrd, which was confirmed in two patients receiving 2 g FdUrd by short i.v. infusion. A disproportionate increase in the plasma FdUrd levels and the corresponding AUC values was found with increasing dose, suggesting a disproportionate increase in the systemic partitioning of FdUrd when doses were escalated within a patient. Substantial levels of peritoneal 5-fluorouracil (FUra) were also detected in most of the subjects. Thus, FdUrd was found to have several desirable properties for i.p. administration: (1) a 2- to 4-log pharmacologic advantage, (2) the absence of local toxicities, and (3) a favorable antitumor spectrum and some evidence of antitumor effects in this phase I and pharmacology study. A 3,000-mg dose given in 2 l 1.5% dialysate for 3 consecutive days exhibited antitumor activity and produced no systemic toxicity except nausea and vomiting, which was controlled by antiemetics. This dose schedule is therefore recommended for phase II trials directed against small-volume disease in the peritoneal cavity, such as may be found in some stages of ovarian and gastrointestinal cancers. In addition, it is suitable for further exploration as a part of regimens including systemic therapy or drugs that modulate the action of fluoropyrimidines.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research