MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-eight patients with clinically isolated syndrome and 30 patients with other neurologic diseases and a healthy control group (n = 47) were included in the study. Subjects were scanned at 3T by using SWI-filtered phase and T2WI, with WM signal abnormalities ≥3 mm being classified.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Identifying MRI biomarkers that can differentiate multiple sclerosis patients from other neurological disorders is a subject of intense research. Our aim was to investigate phase WM signal abnormalities for their presence, prevalence, location, and diagnostic value among patients with clinically isolated syndrome and other neurologic disorders and age-, sex-, and group-matched healthy controls.
RESULTS: Patients with clinically isolated syndrome had significantly more phase and T2 WM signal abnormalities than healthy controls (P <.001). PhaseWMsignal abnormalities were more prevalent among patients with clinically isolated syndrome compared with patients with other neurologic disorders (4:1 ratio), whereas T2WMsignal abnormalities were more ubiquitous with a 2:1 ratio. The presence of phase WM signal abnormalities was sensitive for clinically isolated syndrome (70.8%) and achieved a moderate-to-high specificity for differentiating patients with clinically isolated syndrome and healthy controls, patients with other neurologic disorders, and patients with other neurologic disorders of other autoimmune origin (specificity, 70%-76.7%). Combining the presence of≥2 phase lesions with the McDonald 2005 and 2010 criteria for dissemination in space improved the specificity (90%), but not the accuracy, in differentiating patients with clinically isolated syndrome from those with other neurologic disorders. In subanalyses among patients with clinically isolated syndrome who converted to clinically definite multiple sclerosis versus those who did not within a 3-year follow-up period, converters had significantly more phase (P = .008) but not T2 or T1 WM signal abnormalities.
CONCLUSIONS: Phase WM signal abnormalities are prevalent among patients with clinically isolated syndrome. The presence of (multiple) phase WM signal abnormalities tended to be more predictive of conversion to clinically definite multiple sclerosis and was specific in differentiating patients with clinically isolated syndrome and other neurologic disorders, compared with T2 WM signal abnormalities; however, the accuracy remains similar to that of the current McDonald criteria.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging