Phenotype of five cases of prenatally diagnosed campomelic dysplasia harboring novel mutations of the SOX9 gene

B. Gentilin, F. Forzano, M. F. Bedeschi, T. Rizzuti, F. Faravelli, C. Izzi, M. Lituania, C. Rodriguez-Perez, M. P. Bondioni, G. Savoldi, E. Grosso, G. Botta, E. Viora, A. M. Baffico, F. Lalatta

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Abstract

Objectives Campomelic dysplasia is a rare congenital skeletal disorder characterized by bowing of the long bones and a variety of other skeletal and extraskeletal defects, many of which can now be identified prenatally using advanced ultrasound equipment. The disorder is caused by mutations in SRY-box 9 (SOX9), a gene that is abundantly expressed in chondrocytes as well as in other tissues. However, the correlation between genotype and phenotype is still unclear. We report five cases of prenatally detected campomelic dysplasia in which the diagnosis was confirmed by molecular analysis. Methods Ultrasound examinations were performed between 12 and 32 weeks. Standard fetal biometric measurements were obtained. Fetal sex was determined sonographically and confirmed by chromosomal analysis. Genomic DNA was obtained in four cases before termination of pregnancy from chorionic villi or amniocytes and in one case postnatally from peripheral blood. Results Skeletal dysplasia, most often limb shortening and bowed femora, was observed in one case in the first trimester, in three cases in the second trimester and in one case, presenting late for antenatal care, in the third trimester. Four of the pregnancies were terminated and one was carried to term. Postmortem/postnatal physical and radiographic examinations confirmed the presence of anomalies characteristic of campomelic dysplasia. A de novo mutation in the SOX9 gene was detected in all four cases that underwent termination. The father of the proband in the case that went to term was a carrier of a somatic mosaic mutation without clinical or radiographic signs of campomelic dysplasia. Conclusions It is likely that the integrated expertise of ultrasonographers, obstetricians, pediatricians and clinical geneticists will markedly improve the likelihood of accurate prenatal clinical diagnoses of campomelic dysplasia. This will, in turn, encourage more specific molecular testing and facilitate comprehensive genetic counseling.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)315-323
Number of pages9
JournalUltrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume36
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2010

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Keywords

  • Campomelic dysplasia
  • Prenatal/postnatal phenotype
  • Somatic mosaicism
  • SOX9 gene

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Gentilin, B., Forzano, F., Bedeschi, M. F., Rizzuti, T., Faravelli, F., Izzi, C., Lituania, M., Rodriguez-Perez, C., Bondioni, M. P., Savoldi, G., Grosso, E., Botta, G., Viora, E., Baffico, A. M., & Lalatta, F. (2010). Phenotype of five cases of prenatally diagnosed campomelic dysplasia harboring novel mutations of the SOX9 gene. Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 36(3), 315-323. https://doi.org/10.1002/uog.7761