Phosphodiesterase inhibitors say NO to Alzheimer's disease

Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Sylwia Talarek, Joanna Listos, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Kasi Pandima Devi, Marcos Roberto de Oliveira, Devesh Tewari, Sandro Argüelles, Saeed Mehrzadi, Azam Hosseinzadeh, Grazia D'onofrio, Ilkay Erdogan Orhan, Antoni Sureda, Suowen Xu, Saeedeh Momtaz, Mohammad Hosein Farzaei

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) consisted of 11 subtypes (PDE1 to PDE11) and over 40 isoforms that regulate levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), the second messengers in cell functions. PDE inhibitors (PDEIs) have been attractive therapeutic targets due to their involvement in diverse medical conditions, e.g. cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune diseases, Alzheimer's disease (AD), etc. Among them; AD with a complex pathology is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder which affect mostly senile people in the world and only symptomatic treatment particularly using cholinesterase inhibitors in clinic is available at the moment for AD. Consequently, novel treatment strategies towards AD are still searched extensively. Since PDEs are broadly expressed in the brain, PDEIs are considered to modulate neurodegenerative conditions through regulating cAMP and cGMP in the brain. In this sense, several synthetic or natural molecules inhibiting various PDE subtypes such as rolipram and roflumilast (PDE4 inhibitors), vinpocetine (PDE1 inhibitor), cilostazol and milrinone (PDE3 inhibitors), sildenafil and tadalafil (PDE5 inhibitors), etc have been reported showing encouraging results for the treatment of AD. In this review, PDE superfamily will be scrutinized from the view point of structural features, isoforms, functions and pharmacology particularly attributed to PDEs as target for AD therapy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number110822
JournalFood and Chemical Toxicology
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2019


  • Alzheimer's disease
  • cAMP
  • cGMP
  • Isoform
  • Phosphodiesterase
  • Subtype

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Toxicology

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