Photoradiation methods for purging autologous bone marrow grafts.

S. Gulati, J. Atzpodien, R. M. Lemoli, C. Shimazaki, B. Clarkson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The potential of various photoradiation therapy for the in vitro purging of residual tumor cells from autologous bone marrow (BM) transplants is discussed in this paper. The results with fluorescent dyes, Dihematoporphyrin Ether (DHE) and Merocyanine-540 (MC-540) are detailed. Following photoradiation of cells with white light, both DHE and MC-540 showed high cytocidal activity towards lymphoid and myeloid neoplastic cells, but had significantly less effect on normal granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM), erythroid (BFU-E) and mixed colony-forming (CFU-GEMM) progenitor cells. Acute promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60), non-B, non-T, cALLa positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Reh), and diffuse histiocytic B-cell lymphoma (SK-DHL-2) cell lines were exposed to different drug concentrations in combination with white light at a constant illumination rate of 50,000 lux. With DHE doses varying from 2.0 to 2.5 ug/ml and MC-540 concentrations of 15 to 20 ug/ml, clonogenic tumor cells could be reduced by more than 4 logs, when treated alone or in mixtures with normal irradiated human marrow cells. However, preferential cytotoxicity towards neoplastic cells was highly dependent on the mode of light activation. MC-540 had no substantial effect on malignant lymphoid (SK-DHL-2) and myeloid (HL-60) cells, and on normal marrow myeloid (CFU-GM) precursors, when the drug incubation was performed in the dark and followed by light exposure of washed cells. Equal doses of MC-540 (15-20 ug/ml) could preferentially eliminate tumor cells under conditions of simultaneous light and drug treatment (30 minutes at 37 degrees C). Using DHE (2.5 ug/ml), 29.3%, 46.8%, and 27.5% of normal marrow CFU-GM, BFU-E, and CFU-GEMM, respectively, were spared, following sequential drug and light exposure of cells, while simultaneous treatment reduced both normal (CFU-GM) and neoplastic cells below the limits of detection. The data from various centers is briefly discussed with special emphasis on clinical trials. Our results provide a useful model for leukemia and lymphoma cells and suggest that these phototherapy experiments can be implemented into clinical trials.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)87-102
Number of pages16
JournalProgress in Clinical and Biological Research
Publication statusPublished - 1990

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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