Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is associated with multi-factorial syndromes, commonly known as porcine-circovirus-associated diseases, which cause severe economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. Four genotypes (PCV2a, PCV2b, PCV2c, and PCV2d) have been identified. Lately, the prevalence of PCV2d has been increasing in many countries, thereby prefiguring a global replacement of PCV2b. Wild boars are also susceptible to PCV2 infection, with virus prevalence similar to that of domestic pigs. This work was aimed at expanding the knowledge about the molecular epidemiology of PCV2 in Italy. For this purpose, we analysed 40 complete ORF-2 sequences from PCV2 strains isolated from domestic pigs and wild boars in Sardinia (Italy) over a period of 5 years (2009-2013). Phylogenetic and Bayesian analyses were performed on three data sets compiled from DNA sequences over a large geographical area. PCV2b was found to be dominant in Sardinia, whereas no PCV2a and PCV2c were found. This study indicates the presence of genotype PCV2d-2 infecting both domestic and wild pigs, thus confirming its circulation in Italy. Sardinian sequences clustered mostly with Italian isolates and with strains from China, Belgium, Croatia, Taiwan, Korea, and Portugal. Genetic variability of PCV2 in Sardinia appears to be a result of both local viral evolution and different epidemic introduction events.
- Circoviridae Infections/epidemiology
- Molecular Epidemiology
- Sus scrofa
- Swine Diseases/virology