Osteoarthritis (OA) is predominantly characterized by the progressive degradation of articular cartilage, the connective tissue produced by chondrocytes, due to an imbalance between anabolic and catabolic processes. In addition, physical activity (PA) is recognized as an important tool for counteracting OA. To evaluate PA effects on the chondrocyte lineage, we analyzed the expression of SOX9, COL2A1, and COMP in circulating progenitor cells following a half marathon (HM) performance. Therefore, we studied in-depth the involvement of metabolites affecting chondrocyte lineage, and we compared the metabolomic profile associated with PA by analyzing runners' sera before and after HM performance. Interestingly, this study highlighted that metabolites involved in vitamin B6 salvage, such as pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate, were highly modulated. To evaluate the effects of vitamin B6 in cartilage cells, we treated differentiated mesenchymal stem cells and the SW1353 chondrosarcoma cell line with vitamin B6 in the presence of IL1β, the inflammatory cytokine involved in OA. Our study describes, for the first time, the modulation of the vitamin B6 salvage pathway following PA and suggests a protective role of PA in OA through modulation of this pathway.