5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (Decitabine) is a new cytosine analog with potent antileukemic activity and able to induce in vitro gene activation and cellular differentiation by a mechanism probably involving DNA hypomethylation. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy and the toxicity of Decitabine, used as single induction agent, in the treatment of poor prognosis acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, and to explore its mechanism of action. A total of 12 patients were treated with Decitabine at 90-120 mg/m2 as a four hour intravenous infusion, three times daily for three consecutive days every four to six weeks. A minimum of two courses were required for response evaluation and to consider a patient as therapeutic failure. A total of 10/12 patients were fully evaluable for response; three patients achieved a complete remission (CR) and one a partial remission (PR). Extra-hematological toxicity was generally mild. As for the mechanism of action, both a differentiation induction effect and a cytotoxic mechanism have been observed. In particular, CRs and PRs were probably obtained through the induction of leukemia cell differentiation as shown by the kinetic of remission and immunotyping studies. The preliminary results of this ongoing study suggest that Decitabine may have a prominent role in the treatment of those AML patients with poor general conditions and/or advanced age.
|Number of pages||6|
|Issue number||SUPPL. MONOGR. 1|
|Publication status||Published - 1993|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research