Pituitary apoplexy: considerations on a single center experience and review of the literature

L. Giammattei, G. Mantovani, G. Carrabba, S. Ferrero, A. Di Cristofori, E. Verrua, C. Guastella, L. Pignataro, P. Rampini, M. Minichiello, M. Locatelli

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Purpose: To present a single-center experience on pituitary tumor apoplexy and a review of literature focusing on predisposing and precipitating factors. Methods: Clinical presentation of our series of cases. Contemporary published literature is also reviewed. Results: The definition of this syndrome has not been consistent although now the majority of authors agree to definite it as an acute condition caused by hemorrhage or infarction of a pre-existing pituitary adenoma. Different predisposing and precipitating factors have been described in literature; among these antithrombotic and anticoagulant drugs, seem to play relevant roles. The clinical cases observed in our clinic confirm these data and suggest a probable association between elderly patients taking anticoagulant therapy and pituitary apoplexy adenoma. Conclusion: Pituitary tumor apoplexy remains a challenging disease in relation to difficulties in correct diagnosis and thus in appropriate treatment. Antithrombotic/anticoagulant therapy may have an important role as precipitating factor. When a pituitary disorder is known, great care should be taken in the prescription of anticoagulant therapy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)739-746
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Endocrinological Investigation
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 1 2016


  • Anticoagulant therapy
  • Apoplexy
  • Pituitary
  • Review

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology


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