Pituitary diseases and bone

Gherardo Mazziotti, S Frara, A Giustina

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Neuroendocrinology of bone is a new area of research based on the evidence that pituitary hormones may directly modulate bone remodeling and metabolism. Skeletal fragility associated with high risk of fractures is a common complication of several pituitary diseases such as hypopituitarism, Cushing disease, acromegaly, and hyperprolactinemia. As in other forms of secondary osteoporosis, pituitary diseases generally affect bone quality more than bone quantity, and fractures may occur even in the presence of normal or low-normal bone mineral density as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, making difficult the prediction of fractures in these clinical settings. Treatment of pituitary hormone excess and deficiency generally improves skeletal health, although some patients remain at high risk of fractures, and treatment with bone-active drugs may become mandatory. The aim of this review is to discuss the physiological, pathophysiological, and clinical insights of bone involvement in pituitary diseases. (Endocrine Reviews 39: 440 – 488, 2018) Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)440-488
Number of pages49
JournalEndocrine Reviews
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2018


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