Plasma Carotenoids, tocopherols, and retinol in the age-stratified (35-74 years) general population: A cross-sectional study in six European countries

Wolfgang Stuetz, Daniela Weber, Martijn E T Dollé, Eugène Jansen, Beatrix Grubeck-Loebenstein, Simone Fiegl, Olivier Toussaint, Juergen Bernhardt, Efstathios S. Gonos, Claudio Franceschi, Ewa Sikora, María Moreno-Villanueva, Nicolle Breusing, Tilman Grune, Alexander Bürkle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Blood micronutrient status may change with age. We analyzed plasma carotenoids, α-/γ-tocopherol, and retinol and their associations with age, demographic characteristics, and dietary habits (assessed by a short food frequency questionnaire) in a cross-sectional study of 2118 women and men (age-stratified from 35 to 74 years) of the general population from six European countries. Higher age was associated with lower lycopene and α-/β-carotene and higher β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, α-/γ-tocopherol, and retinol levels. Significant correlations with age were observed for lycopene (r = −0.248), α-tocopherol (r = 0.208), α-carotene (r = −0.112), and β-cryptoxanthin (r = 0.125; all p < 0.001). Age was inversely associated with lycopene (−6.5% per five-year age increase) and this association remained in the multiple regression model with the significant predictors (covariables) being country, season, cholesterol, gender, smoking status, body mass index (BMI (kg/m2)), and dietary habits. The positive association of α-tocopherol with age remained when all covariates including cholesterol and use of vitamin supplements were included (1.7% vs. 2.4% per five-year age increase). The association of higher β-cryptoxanthin with higher age was no longer statistically significant after adjustment for fruit consumption, whereas the inverse association of α-carotene with age remained in the fully adjusted multivariable model (−4.8% vs. −3.8% per five-year age increase). We conclude from our study that age is an independent predictor of plasma lycopene, α-tocopherol, and α-carotene.

Original languageEnglish
Article number614
JournalNutrients
Volume8
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1 2016

Keywords

  • Age
  • Carotenoids
  • Europe
  • Lycopene
  • Micronutrients
  • Plasma
  • Retinol
  • Tocopherols

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science

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