BACKGROUND AND AIMS:: Hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with several chronic liver diseases, especially chronic hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and alcoholism. It is increasingly appreciated that obesity/metabolic syndrome is also associated with chronic liver disease and subsequent hepatocellular carcinoma.
METHODS:: We retrospectively investigated the serum lipid profiles in a large hepatocellular carcinoma cohort, associated predominantly with the hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, alcohol or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. The cohort was examined both as a whole, as well as stratified by etiology.
RESULTS:: We found significant associations between parameters of hepatocellular carcinoma biology such as maximum tumor diameter, portal vein thrombosis, tumor multifocality or alpha-fetoprotein levels and individual lipid components, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and body mass index. In a final multiple linear regression model considering all lipid variables together, only high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly associated with the tumor Tumor Aggressiveness Index. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was found to have a statistically higher hazard ratio for death than low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (Cox). On examination by etiological group, alpha-fetoprotein levels were significantly higher in patients with hepatitis C virus compared to those with alcohol or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, but maximum tumor diameter, tumor multifocality and portal vein thrombosis were similar across etiological groups. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis patients had significantly less cirrhosis than other groups and hepatitis B virus patients had significantly higher cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels than hepatitis C virus patients.
CONCLUSIONS:: This is the first report, to our knowledge, of a relationship between serum lipid parameters and indices of hepatocellular carcinoma growth, invasion and aggressiveness, as well as with survival.