Celiac disease (CD) and selective IgA deficiency (IgAD) are frequently associated, and share the same genetic background. The aim of the present study was to evaluate both Type 1 and 2 plasma cytokine levels in CD and in CD-IgAD. IL-2, TNF-α, IL-10, IL-4 and IL-13 plasma levels were measured both at diagnosis and after a gluten-free diet (GFD) in 32 CD patients, in 27 CD-IgAD patients and in 30 healthy controls. IFN-γ levels were significantly higher in CD and CD-IgAD than in controls, TNF-α displayed significantly higher levels in CD-IgAD when compared both with controls and with CD, and IL-2 was in CD-IgAD significantly increased respect to controls. Kinetics of the Type 1 cytokine plasma levels did not show a clear relationship with the GFD in both groups of CD patients, and particularly in those with IgAD. IL-4 and IL-13, both at diagnosis and after a GFD, were not significantly different in controls and in celiac patients (with and without IgAD). IL-10, whose production is stimulated by the TNF-α, had significantly higher plasma levels in CD-IgAD, but not in CD patients, with a significant decrease after a GFD. CD and especially CD-IgAD patients display persistently higher pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, suggesting a persistent state of activation of pro-phlogistic signals in CD, particularly when IgAD coexists. Serial measurement of serum IL-10 may be an adjunctive evaluating criterion in the follow-up of CD-IgAD patients.
- Celiac disease
- Cytokine plasma levels, selective IgA deficiency
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health