Alveolar osteitis (AO) is characterized by excess fibrinolysis, leading to early dissociation of the clot that normally follows tooth extraction. Nonetheless, scarce information is available on the fibrinolytic system in AO. In this study, we report on the differential composition of postextraction wound healing tissue and of peri-alveolar gingival epithelium from normal healing and AO patients in terms of plasminogen activators, plasminogen activator inhibitor-type 1, and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor. Plasminogen activators were studied by overlay zymography, western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Plasminogen activator inhibitor-type 1 and urokinase receptor were measured by ELISA. In AO, the fibrinolytic activity of wound healing tissue was accounted for by an increase (≈ 85%) of urokinase-type plasminogen activator, whereas tissue-type plasminogen activator was unchanged. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-type 1 showed a 6.7-fold increase in AO. These results point to key roles of urokinase in AO hyper-fibrinolysis and of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 in slowing down the healing response. Peri-alveolar gingival epithelium in AO showed an overall decrease of all the components of the fibrinolytic system, including the urokinase receptor, which indicates a decrease of the migration properties of epithelial cells.
- Alveolar osteitis
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