In CD34+ cells mobilization of patients with multiple myeloma (MM), the use of Cyclophosphamide (CTX) at a dose of 2 g/m2 has low efficacy although also lower toxicity. The suboptimal mobilizing effect of low-dose CTX, however, may be overcome by plerixafor (PLX) on demand. We conducted a prospective multicenter study in 138 patients with MM to evaluate CTX 2 g/m2 in association with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and on-demand PLX. We compared results with a historical group of MM patients (n = 138) mobilized using CTX at a dose of 4 g/m2. CD34+ cells greater than 2 × 106/kg in max three aphereses were harvested in 98.6% of patients in the on-demand PLX study group while in 84.0% in the historical group, (p = 0.0001). In the on-demand-PLX study group, a successful harvest greater than 5 × 106/kg in max three aphereses was observed in 85.5% of patients versus 62.3% of patients in the historical control group, (p=0.0001). In the on-demand-PLX study group, 4.3% (6/138) of patients had febrile complications. Salvage mobilization in the on-demand PLX study group was 1.4%. In conclusions, on-demand PLX + CTX 2 g/m2 + G-CSF 10 μg/kg has higher efficacy and lower toxicity compared with CTX 4 g/m2 + G-CSF. An analysis of costs is presented.
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