PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ongoing research is constantly looking for means to modulate the immune system for long-lasting engraftment of pluripotent stem cells (PSC) during stem cell-based therapies. This study reviews data on in-vitro and in-vivo immunogenicity of embryonic and induced-PSC and describes how their immunological properties can be harnessed for tolerance induction in organ transplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: Although PSC display immunomodulatory properties in vitro, they are capable of eliciting an immune response that leads to cell rejection when transplanted into immune-competent recipients. Nevertheless, long-term acceptance of PSC-derived cells/tissues in an allogeneic environment can be achieved using minimal host conditioning. Protocols for differentiating PSC towards haematopoietic stem cells, thymic epithelial precursors, dendritic cells, regulatory T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells are being developed, suggesting the possibility to use PSC-derived immunomodulatory cells to induce tolerance to a solid organ transplant. SUMMARY: PSC and/or their derivatives possess unique immunological properties that allow for acceptance of PSC-derived tissue with minimal host conditioning. Investigators involved either in regenerative or in transplant medicine must join their efforts with the ultimate aim of using PSC as a source of donor-specific cells that would create a protolerogenic environment to achieve tolerance in solid organ transplantation.
- embryonic stem cells
- induced-pluripotent stem cells
- tolerance induction
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy