Pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal diseases: The role of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the era of multi-drug resistance

Chiara Scelfo, Francesco Menzella, Matteo Fontana, Giulia Ghidoni, Carla Galeone, Nicola Cosimo Facciolongo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Streptococcus pneumoniae related diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in children and in the elderly population. It is transmitted to other individuals through droplets and it can spread to other parts of the human host, causing a wide spectrum of clinical syndromes, affecting between 10 and 100 cases per 100,000 people in Europe and the USA. In order to reduce morbidity and mortality caused by this agent, pneumococcal vaccines have been developed over the years and have shown incredible effectiveness in reducing the spread of this bacterium and the development of related diseases, obtaining a significant reduction in mortality, especially in developing countries. However, considerable problems are emerging mainly due to the replacement phenomenon, multi-drug resistance, and the high production costs of conjugated vaccines. There is still a debate about the indications given by various countries to different age groups; this is one of the reasons for the diffusion of different serotypes. To cope with these problems, significant efforts have been made in the research field to further improve vaccination serotypes coverage. On the other hand, an equally important commitment by health care systems to all age group populations is needed to improve vaccination coverage.

Original languageEnglish
Article number420
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2021


  • Anticapsular antibodies
  • Humoral immunity
  • Pneumococcal colonization
  • Pneumonia
  • Serotypes
  • Vaccines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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