Podocytes: Recent biomolecular developments

Silvia Armelloni, Alessandro Corbelli, Laura Giardino, Min Li, Masami Ikehata, Deborah Mattinzoli, Piergiorgio Messa, Chiara Pignatari, Shojiro Watanabe, Maria Pia Rastaldi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Podocytes are postmitotic renal glomerular cells with multiple ramifications that extend from the cell body. Processes departing from a podocyte interdigitate with corresponding projections from neighboring cells and form an intricate web that enwraps the glomerular capillary completely. Podocyte processes are interconnected by the slit diaphragm, an adhesion junction mostly formed by Ig-like molecules, cadherins/protocadherins, ephrin/eph, and neurexin molecules organized in an assembly that resembles synaptic junctions. Podocyte failure is primarily or secondarily implicated in all forms of proteinuric glomerular diseases, as confirmed by the morphological changes of their elaborate cell architecture detectable by electron microscopy. Importantly, mutations of podocyte proteins are responsible for the most severe forms of congenital nephrotic syndrome. In the last 15 years, progressive technological advances have aided the study of podocyte biology and pathology, confirming the relevance of podocyte molecules and signaling pathways for the function of the glomerular filter. This review will examine the most important and newest discoveries in the field, which is rapidly evolving, hopefully leading to a detailed knowledge of this fascinating cell and to the development of specific therapeutic options for proteinuric diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)319-330
Number of pages12
JournalBiomolecular Concepts
Volume5
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 1 2014

Keywords

  • Actin cytoskeleton
  • foot processes
  • nephrin
  • podocyte
  • proteinuria
  • slit diaphragm

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Medicine(all)

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