Purpose: Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a powerful instrument for helping clinicians detect and monitor glaucoma. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed mapping of the relationships between visual field (VF) sensitivities and measures of retinal structure provided by a commercial Spectral Domain (SD)-OCT system (RTvue-100 Optovue). Methods: Sixty-three eyes of open angle glaucoma patients (17 males, 16 females, and mean age 71 ± 7.5 years) were included in this retrospective, observational clinical study. Thickness values for superior and inferior retina, as well as average values, were recorded for the full retina, the outer retina, the ganglion cell complex, and the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). RNFL thickness was further evaluated along eight separate sectors (temporal lower, temporal upper, superior temporal, superior nasal, nasal upper, nasal lower, inferior nasal, and inferior temporal). Point-wise correlations were then computed between each of these OCT measures and the visual sensitivities at all VF locations assessed via Humphrey 10-2 and 24-2 perimetry. Lastly, OCT data were fit to VF data to predict glaucoma stage. Results: The relationship between retinal thickness and visual sensitivities reflects the known topography of the retina. Spatial correlation patterns between visual sensitivities and RNFL thickness along different sectors broadly agree with previously hypothesized structure–function maps, yet suggest that structure–function maps still require more precise characterizations. Given these relationships, we find that OCT data can predict glaucoma stage. Conclusion: Ganglion cell complex and RNFL thickness measurements are highlighted as the most promising candidate metrics for glaucoma detection and monitoring. © 2020, The Author(s).