Cetuximab, an IgG1 EGFR-directed antibody, promotes antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. We hypothesized that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune regulatory pathways may predict outcomes in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with cetuximab-based regimens. A total of 924 patients were included: 105 received cetuximab in IMCL-0144 and cetuximab/irinotecan in GONO-ASL608LIOM01 (training cohort), 225 FOLFIRI/cetuximab in FIRE-3 (validation cohort 1), 74 oxaliplatin/cetuximab regimens in JACCRO CC-05/06 (validation cohort 2), and 520 FOLFIRI/bevacizumab in FIRE-3 and TRIBE (control cohorts). Twelve SNPs in five genes (IDO1; PD-L1; PD-1; CTLA-4; CD24) were evaluated by PCR-based direct sequencing. We analyzed associations between genotype and clinical outcomes. In the training cohort; patients with the CD24 rs52812045 A/A genotype had a significantly shorter median PFS and OS than those with the G/G genotype (PFS 1.3 vs. 3.6 months; OS 2.3 vs. 7.8 months) in univariate (PFS HR 3.62; p = 0.001; OS HR 3.27; p = 0.0004) and multivariate (PFS HR 3.18; p = 0.009; OS HR 4.93; p = 0.001) analyses. Similarly; any A allele carriers in the JACCRO validation cohort had a significantly shorter PFS than G/G carriers (9.2 vs. 11.8 months; univariate HR 1.90; p = 0.011; multivariate HR 2.12; p = 0.018). These associations were not demonstrated in the control cohorts. CD24 genetic variants may help select patients with metastatic colorectal cancer most likely to benefit from cetuximab-based therapy.