Generally, dementia should be considered an acquired syndrome, with multiple possible causes, rather than a specific disease in itself. The leading causes of dementia are neurodegenerative and non-neurodegenerative alterations. Nevertheless, the neurodegenerative group of diseases that lead to cognitive impairment and dementia includes multiple possibilities or mixed pathologies with personalized treatment management for each cause, even if Alzheimer's disease is the most common pathology. Therefore, an accurate differential diagnosis is mandatory in order to select the most appropriate therapy approach. The role of personalized assessment in the treatment of dementia is rapidly growing. Neuroimaging is an essential tool for differential diagnosis of multiple causes of dementia and allows a personalized diagnostic and therapeutic protocol based on risk factors that may improve treatment management, especially in early diagnosis during the prodromal stage. The utility of structural and functional imaging could be increased by standardization of acquisition and analysis methods and by the development of algorithms for automated assessment. The aim of this review is to focus on the most commonly used tracers for differential diagnosis in the dementia field. Particularly, we aim to explore 18F Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in Alzheimer's disease and in other neurodegenerative causes of dementia.