Post-ischemic brain damage: Effect of ischemic preconditioning and postconditioning and identification of potential candidates for stroke therapy

Giuseppe Pignataro, Antonella Scorziello, Gianfranco Di Renzo, Lucio Annunziato

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Because clinical trials of pharmacological neuroprotective strategies in stroke have been disappointing, attention has turned to the brain's own endogenous strategies for neuroprotection. Two endogenous mechanisms have been characterized so far, namely ischemic preconditioning and ischemic postconditioning. The neuroprotective concept of preconditioning is based on the observation that a brief, noninjurious episode of ischemia is able to protect the brain from a subsequent longer ischemic insult. Recently, a hypothesis has been offered that modified reperfusion subsequent to a prolonged ischemic episode may also confer ischemic neuroprotection, a phenomenon termed postconditioning. Many pathways have been proposed as plausible mechanisms to explain the neuroprotection offered by preconditioning and postconditioning. Unfortunately, so far, none of them has clearly identified the mechanism involved in preconditioning and postconditioning. The present article will review the main mechanisms reported to date to explain the neuroprotective effect of both ischemic preconditioning and postconditioning.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)46-57
Number of pages12
JournalFEBS Journal
Volume276
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2009

Keywords

  • Cerebral ischemia
  • Ionic homeostasis
  • Kinase
  • MnSOD
  • Neuroprotection
  • Nitric oxide
  • Postconditioning
  • Preconditioning
  • Stroke
  • Tolerance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology
  • Molecular Biology

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