Haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) performed using bone marrow (BM) grafts and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) has gained much interest for the excellent toxicity profile after both reduced-intensity and myeloablative conditioning. We investigated, in a cohort of 40 high-risk hematological patients, the feasibility of peripheral blood stem cells grafts after a treosulfan-melphalan myeloablative conditioning, followed by a PTCy and sirolimus-based graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis (Sir-PTCy). Donor engraftment occurred in all patients, with full donor chimerism achieved by day 30. Post-HSCT recovery of lymphocyte subsets was broad and fast, with a median time to CD4 > 200/μL of 41 days. Cumulative incidences of grade II to IV and III-IV acute GVHD were 15% and 7.5%, respectively, and were associated with a significant early increase in circulating regulatory T cells at day 15 after HSCT, with values <5% being predictive of subsequent GVHD occurrence. The 1-year cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 20%. Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) at 100 days and 1 year were 12% and 17%, respectively. With a median follow-up for living patients of 15 months, the estimated 1-year overall and disease-free survival (DFS) was 56% and 48%, respectively. Outcomes were more favorable in patients who underwent transplantation in complete remission (1-year DFS 71%) versus patients who underwent transplantation with active disease (DFS, 34%; P=.01). Overall, myeloablative haploidentical HSCT with peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) and Sir-PTCy is a feasible treatment option: the low rates of GVHD and NRM as well as the favorable immune reconstitution profile pave the way for a prospective comparative trial comparing BM and PBSC in this specific transplantation setting.
- Allogeneic stem cell transplantation
- Haploidentical transplantation
- Peripheral blood stem cell transplantation
- Post-transplantation cyclophosphamide
ASJC Scopus subject areas