Posterior urethral valves (PUV) are the main cause of bladder outfl ow obstruction in male infants, and the most common obstructive uropathy leading to chronic renal failure in childhood. Their incidence is estimated at 1/5,000 to 1/8,000 male births, but these fi gures are probably underestimated due to fetal and perinatal demise. Despite occasional reports of PUV occurring in twins and in siblings, PUV are generally sporadic. Chromosomal anomalies are uncommon and associated anomalies are also very rare. Cryptorchidism only occurs more frequently in VUP patients (12%) compared to the 0.8% expected incidence in common children.
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