Postquadrantectomy breast deformities: Classification and techniques of surgical correction

Pietro Berrino, Elisabetta Campora, Pierluigi Santi

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The deformity which is encountered following quadrantectomy (or similar procedures such as segmentectomy or partial mastectomy) and radiation therapy is difficult to evaluate objectively, and subjective assessment of the cosmetic outcome is extremely variable. In a group of 54 patients who underwent the procedure between 1979 and 1983, the types of cosmetic changes were evaluated and classified according to morphologic criteria. Four types of deformities and their related etiopathologic factors were identified. Type I is characterized by malposition and distortion of the nipple-areola complex and is mainly due to postoperative fibrosis and scar contracture. In type II deformity, localized tissue insufficiency is observed, which may be due to skin deficiency (type IIa), subcutaneous tissue deficiency (type IIb), or both (type IIab). Type III deformity is characterized by breast retraction and shrinkage and is mainly due to the effects of radiotherapy on residual breast parenchyma. In type IV deformity, severe radiation-induced damage to the skin, nipple-areola complex, and subcutaneous and glandular tissues is present. Surgical correction of each type of deformity is discussed, and examples are reported.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)567-572
Number of pages6
JournalPlastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1987

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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