The use of chemotherapy in premenopausal cancer patients may lead to chemotherapy-induced premature ovarian failure. Pharmacological temporary ovarian suppression obtained with the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) administered concomitantly with chemotherapy has been investigated as a technique capable to reduce the gonadotoxicity, reducing the risk of developing premature menopause. In recent years, important evidence has become available on the efficacy and safety of this strategy that should now be considered a standard option for ovarian function preservation in premenopausal breast cancer patients. However, in women interested in fertility preservation, this is not an alternative to cryopreservation strategies, which remains the first option to be proposed. The purpose of this review is to summarize the mechanisms of GnRHa in the preservation of fertility in premenopausal cancer patient candidates to receive chemotherapy, highlighting the areas of doubt that require further investigation.